- Original research
- Open Access
An automatic delineation method for bone marrow absorbed dose estimation in 89Zr PET/CT studies
© Makris et al. 2016
- Received: 18 November 2015
- Accepted: 30 June 2016
- Published: 22 July 2016
The study aims to develop and validate an automatic delineation method for estimating red bone marrow (RM) activity concentration and absorbed dose in 89Zr positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) studies. Five patients with advanced colorectal cancer received 37.1 ± 0.9 MBq [89Zr] cetuximab within 2 h after administration of a therapeutic dose of 500 mg m−2 unlabelled cetuximab. Per patient, five PET/CT scans were acquired on a Gemini TF-64 PET/CT scanner at 1, 24, 48, 96 and 144 h post injection. Low dose CT data were used to manually generate volumes of interest (VOI) in the lumbar vertebrae (LV). In addition, LV VOI were generated automatically using an active contour method in a low dose CT. RM activity was then determined by mapping the low dose CT-derived RM VOI onto the corresponding PET scans. Finally, these activities were used to derive residence times and, subsequently, the self and total RM absorbed doses using OLINDA/EXM 1.1.
High correlations (r 2 > 0.85) between manual and automated VOI methods were obtained for both RM activity concentrations and total absorbed doses. On average, the automatic method provided values that were lower than 5 % compared to the manual method.
An automated and efficient VOI method, based on an active contour approach, was developed, enabling accurate estimates of RM activity concentrations and total absorbed doses.
- Active contour
- Bone marrow
- Absorbed dose
In radio-immunotherapy studies, red bone marrow (RM) often is the dose-limiting organ . RM is a complex and dynamic organ, which is distributed in different sites throughout the human body with the axial skeleton (i.e. vertebrae) being the main site. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) allows for assessment of RM radioactivity concentrations as function of time and thus for estimation of absorbed radiation doses. Conventionally, the plasma time-activity curve is multiplied by a fixed factor (0.19) to estimate the RM time-activity curve [2, 3]. However, there is increasing evidence that the use of a fixed factor may be erroneous, because the RM to plasma activity concentration ratio (RMPR) is not constant and indeed increases over time [4–6]. Consequently, a plasma-based approach could lead to underestimation of RM absorbed dose. Recent findings  showed that the use of a standard peripheral blood sampling method may underestimate radiation absorbed dose to RM in patients undergoing [131I] rituximab radio-immunotherapy. Therefore, an image-based method should be investigated as an alternative to the blood (or plasma)-based methods.
In order to derive RM activity or dose estimates, a manual RM volume of interest method (VOIRM), either defined directly onto the PET image or in a coregistered CT image, is used frequently, as it is simple and straightforward. However, it is also time consuming and labour intensive, especially when analysing several scans per patient. Therefore, an automatic VOIRM method would be advantageous, as it may be both time efficient and observer independent. Such a method could be based on the use of a single Hounsfield unit (HU) threshold value applied to the CT image, allowing for bone marrow activity estimation from the coregistered PET image. However, it is well known that the lumbar vertebrae (LV) consists of different components (compact bone, red and yellow bone marrow, extracellular matrix), displaying a large range of HUs. Consequently, applying a threshold to the CT image may not be optimal, as it would not solely extract the RM component of the LV. This limitation might be overcome by using a more sophisticated active contour method [8, 9] that first identifies the outer bone structure of the LV based on local intensity information in a low dose CT (ldCT) image and subsequently partitions the LV between compact bone and bone marrow.
The purpose of the present study was to develop such an active contour method and to validate it against results obtained from manual positioning of regions of interest.
Five patients with advanced colorectal cancer were included. Patients received 37.1 ± 0.9 MBq [89Zr] cetuximab within 2 h after administration of a therapeutic dose of 500 mg m−2 unlabelled cetuximab. Per patient, five PET/CT scans were acquired on a Gemini TF-64 PET/CT scanner (Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, USA) at 1, 24, 48, 96 and 144 h post injection, respectively. PET data were normalized, corrected for decay, randoms, dead time, scatter and attenuation, and reconstructed using a time-of-flight list-mode ordered-subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm using an image matrix size of 144 × 144 and a voxel size of 4 × 4 × 4 mm3. In addition, for each time point, a 50-mAs ldCT scan was acquired for attenuation correction purposes. The corresponding ldCT images were reconstructed using an image matrix size of 512 × 512 and a voxel size of 1.17 × 1.17 × 5.00 mm3. The study was approved by the Medical Ethics Review Committee of the VU University Medical Center, and informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to inclusion in the study.
Automatic delineation (active contour)
In a first initialization step, a region with a margin of about 1 cm was drawn around the five LV segments on the rebinned ldCT image (Fig. 1a). Next, this manual VOI was used to produce an LV binary mask that was applied to the ldCT image for extracting a coarse CT region that contained the LV component (CT1). The active contour model (see Additional file 1: Supplementary material) used in this study is primarily based on a work by Chan and Vese , with additionally incorporating a regularization term in the energy function that enables more robust segmentation of images with weak object boundaries . Recently, the latter methodology was used by Sambuceti et al.  on CT data for extracting the whole bone marrow volume. The active contour model was developed in a MATLAB (MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA, USA) environment and was applied to CT1, where the LV bone contour (enclosing compact bone and bone marrow) was identified, providing a CT image of the compact bone and bone marrow (CT2). This LV bone contour was eroded to exclude compact bone; thus, a three-pixel layer was removed from the outer bone contour, resulting in a CT image containing only the intraosseous volume (CT3). The three-pixel layer was based on an educated guess after testing various pixel layers (from one to four pixels) on their impact in the final bone marrow volume and overlap with manually based ROI. Outer LV bone and intraosseous contours can be seen in Fig. 1b. The automatic delineation per subject (five CT scans) required 25 min on a 32-bit desktop PC using an Intel Core 2 Duo 2.8-GHz CPU with 3.2 GB of RAM, making it three times faster than the manual positioning of ROIs. Additionally, the automatic delineation allows the radiologist to perform in the meantime other clinical tasks.
where A and M correspond to the automatic and manual VOI, respectively.
After determining the mean activity concentration in a VOIRM at all five time points, RM time-activity curves were generated. Other organs were delineated semi-automatically to derive organ time-activity curves . Cumulated activities were calculated as areas under the curves of RM and organ time-activity data by using the trapezoidal rule and assuming physical decay after the last measurement. The latter is a valid assumption, as in the supplementary material it is shown that the bone marrow activity concentration decreases with an effective half-life (73 h) that is shorter than the physical half-life of 89Zr (78.41 h). The residence time in the remainder of the body was calculated as the maximum possible residence time assuming physical decay only (no biological clearance) minus the sum of residence times of source organs. The organ residence times were scaled according to patient-specific weight data. Dose conversion factors (S values) were taken from OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software and were used for calculation of organ and RM absorbed doses . Red bone marrow residence time data based on the plasma method were taken from Makris et al. , and the S RM←RM, S RM←RB and reference man/woman RM volume values used in the calculation of (self and total) RM absorbed dose were taken from OLINDA/EXM 1.1. S RM←RM corresponds to the ‘red marrow to red marrow’ contribution, and S RM←RB corresponds to the ‘remainder of the body to red marrow’ contribution. As this study focused on RM, only self and total (including contributions from source organs) RM doses will be reported.
RM absorbed dose
Self RM dose (mGy MBq−1)
Total RM dose (mGy MBq−1)
0.17 ± 0.04
0.51 ± 0.04
0.16 ± 0.03
0.49 ± 0.03
0.11 ± 0.03
0.45 ± 0.04
Automatically derived RM activity concentrations were within 5 % of manually derived estimates, indicating that the active contour method can identify the intraosseous activity concentration in the LV sufficiently accurately. As a result, accurate estimation of RM absorbed doses could be achieved, showing only a small discrepancy of about 3 % in total dose compared with the manual method. In immunotherapy, where pure or nearly pure β emitters are used, only the self RM absorbed dose component contributes to the total RM dose whereas in immunoPET both the self (electrons) and cross (photons) RM absorbed dose contribute to the total RM absorbed dose.
Bone marrow biopsies have been used as the gold standard for assessing radioactivity concentration in the RM. Other procedures, however, that allow assessment of RM activity concentration based on the blood sampling or the PET image have been preferred due to their minimal or non-invasive nature. Yet, several studies reported that a plasma-based approach may not be reliable for accurately estimating RM absorbed doses, as it assumes a fixed RMPR over time [4–6]. To be more specific, in our previous work, it was found that a plasma-based approach can underestimate RM absorbed dose by 40 % (immunoPET setup) and 20 % (radio-immunotherapy setup) when compared with an image-based method . In addition, the use of manual-based VOIRM showed that RMPR increases as function of time. Consequently, image-based methods for estimation of RM absorbed doses may be preferred. However, manual positioning of ROIRM is time consuming, making the development of an automated tool highly desirable. The present study showed that automatic VOIRM, when using a large erosion kernel, overlapped approximately 60 %, on average, with the manual VOIRM. Additionally, automatic VOIRM-based RM doses were comparable to those obtained from manual VOIRM and thus allows for reliable image-based RM dose estimates. As expected, plasma-based RM absorbed doses deviated significantly from both image-based RM absorbed doses.
There are, however, some practical issues and limitations regarding the use of the present automated method. First, there is a pre-processing step in which the user needs to (roughly) extract the LV-associated part of the CT image. Secondly, in a small proportion (15 %) of the automatically generated VOIRM, minimal manual adjustments were needed in order to remove voxels (from the lower part of LV segments) that did not represent RM volume. Finally, it was assumed that 89Zr activity was distributed homogeneously throughout the intraosseous volume (red and yellow marrow) of the LV. However, yellow marrow (adipose tissue), a non-hematopoietically active tissue, is considered to be a marrow component with reduced activity concentration compared to RM. Additionally, the distribution of the different BM types is dependent upon the skeletal part analysed, RM in the LV is substantially higher than in the shafts of the long bones, i.e. 90 vs 10 % of the intraosseous volume, respectively [10, 14], whereas bones in the appendicular part of the skeleton is mainly occupied by yellow marrow. Consequently, the assumption of homogeneous distributed 89Zr activity in the intraosseous volume of the LV would minimally affect the RM activity concentration estimation, thus, with no notable implications for the conclusions of this study.
A time-efficient and observer-independent method, for estimation of RM activity concentration in the lumbar vertebrae, was developed. The method is based on an active contour approach, providing accurate estimates of RM total absorbed doses.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The study was approved by the Medical Ethics Review Committee of the VU University Medical Center, and informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to inclusion in the study.
The study was financially supported in part by Philips Healthcare. No other potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.
NEM implemented the active contour method, carried out the data analysis, interpreted the results and drafted the manuscript. MCH, RB, AAL and CWM conceived the study and participated in its design. CWM included the patients for the study. MCH participated in the interpretation of the results and helped in drafting the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Loke KS, Padhy AK, Ng DC, Goh AS, Divgi C. Dosimetric considerations in radioimmunotherapy and systemic radionuclide therapies: a review. World J Nucl Med. 2011;10:122–38.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sgouros G. Bone marrow dosimetry for radioimmunotherapy: theoretical considerations. J Nucl Med. 1993;34:689–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shen S, DeNardo GL, Sgouros G, O’Donnell RT, DeNardo SJ. Practical determination of patient-specific marrow dose using radioactivity concentration in blood and body. J Nucl Med. 1999;40:2102–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hindorf C, Linden O, Tennvall J, Wingardh K, Strand SE. Time dependence of the activity concentration ratio of red marrow to blood and implications for red marrow dosimetry. Cancer. 2002;94(4 Suppl):1235–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Makris N, Boellaard R, Van Lingen A, et al. PET/CT derived whole body and bone marrow dosimetry of 89Zr-cetuximab. J Nucl Med. 2015;56:249–54.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz J, Humm JL, Divgi CR, Larson SM, O’Donoghue JA. Bone marrow dosimetry using 124I-PET. J Nucl Med. 2012;53:615–21.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Boucek JA, Turner JH. Personalized dosimetry of 131I-rituximab radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin lymphoma defined by pharmacokinetics in bone marrow and blood. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2014;29:18–25.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chan TF, Vese LA. Active contours without edges. IEEE Trans Image Process. 2001;10:266–77.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li C, Kao CY, Gore JC, Ding Z. Minimization of region-scalable fitting energy for image segmentation. IEEE Trans Image Process. 2008;17:1940–9.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sambuceti G, Brignone M, Marini C, et al. Estimating the whole bone-marrow asset in humans by a computational approach to integrated PET/CT imaging. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012;39:1326–38.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Makris NE, Van Velden FH, Huisman MC, Menke CW, Lammertsma AA, Boellaard R. Validation of simplified dosimetry approaches in (89) Zr-PET/CT: the use of manual versus semi-automatic delineation methods to estimate organ absorbed doses. Med Phys. 2014;41:102503.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stabin MG, Sparks RB, Crowe E. OLINDA/EXM: the second-generation personal computer software for internal dose assessment in nuclear medicine. J Nucl Med. 2005;46:1023–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li C, Xu C, Gui C, Fox MD. Distance regularized level set evolution and its application to image segmentation. IEEE Trans Image Process. 2010;19:3243–54.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Basu S, Houseni M, Bural G, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging based bone marrow segmentation for quantitative calculation of pure red marrow metabolism using 2-deoxy-2-[F-18] fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography: a novel application with significant implications for combined structure-function approach. Mol Imaging Biol. 2007;9:361–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar