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Table 1 Frequently used anaesthetics in small-animal imaging

From: Accurate molecular imaging of small animals taking into account animal models, handling, anaesthesia, quality control and imaging system performance

Anaesthetic Pharmacology, interaction with Application route Typical duration of anaesthesia Note
Isoflurane, sevoflurane Various neuroreceptors and other proteins involved in neurotransmission Inhalation with air/oxygen Controlled by inhalation Isoflurane: Hepatotoxicity (staff!)
Ketamine (ketamine/xylazine) Various neuroreceptors and other proteins involved in neurotransmission i.p. (rats, mice); i.m. (rats) 20 to 30 min (sleep 1 to 2 h) Xylazine against muscle rigidity
Propofol GABAA and various other proteins involved in neurotransmission i.v. bolus + infusion Controlled by infusion  
Chloral hydrate, alpha chloralose Various neuroreceptors and other proteins involved in neurotransmission i.p. 1 to 2 h (rats) Alpha chloralose is the acetal between chloral hydrate and glucose
Pentobarbital GABAA receptor agonist i.p. 15 to 60 min (mice), 70 to 100 min (rats), (sleep 1 to 3 h)  
Fentanyl/fluanisone–midazolam (hypnorm–dormicum) Opioid receptor (fentanyl), dopamine receptors (fluanisone), GABAA receptor (midazolam) i.p. 20 to 70 min (mice), 10 to 110 min (rats), (sleep 1 to 3 h)  
Urethane Various neuroreceptors and other proteins involved in neurotransmission i.p. >24 h Modest influence on cardiovascular and respiratory systems
  1. For references, see text
  2. i.p. intraperitoneal, i.v. intravenous