Skip to main content

Table 6 Summary of phantom studies with hot spheres for 90Y, for several PET/CT and PET/MR systems, SBR and ACref

From: Yttrium-90 quantitative phantom study using digital photon counting PET

Ref. Scanner Spheres phantom set
   SBR ACref Contrast Activity Dose Optim.
    (MBq mL −1)     (Variable parameters)
Werner et al. [49] Biograph Hi-Rez 16 N/A 3.6 - x - -
Van Elmbt et al. [50] Gemini TF       
  Gemini Power 16 3:1 1.3 - x - -
  Ecat Exact HR+       
Bagni et al. [51] Discovery ST 10:1 1.92 - x - -
D’Arienzo et al. [52]        
Willowson et al. [36] Biograph mCT-S(64) 8:1 3.9 x x - OSEM
        (i1, i2, i3,
        s14, s21, s24)
Elschot et al. [53] Biograph mCT 1:0 2.4 x - x -
   9:1      
Carlier et al. [23] Biograph mCT 40 40:1 8.1 - x - OSEM
        (i1, i3)
Attarwala et al. [54] Biograph mCT 40 8:1 2.38 - x - OSEM
        (i1 to i12)
Martí-Climent et al. [55] Biograph mCT-TrueV 5:1 1 x - - OSEM
        (i1, i2, i3,
        2mm, 4mm, 6mm)
Pasciak et al. [37] Biograph mCT Flow 3:1 2.2 - - x PSF at FWHM (mm)
        (2 to 12)
Willowson et al. [45] Various 8:1 N/A - x - -
(The QUEST study)        
Strydhorst et al. [56] Biograph mCT 8:1 N/A x - - -
D’Arienzo et al. [57] Discovery ST 8:1 2.28 - x x -
Siman et al. [38] Discovery 690 4:1 1.6 - x x OSEM
   13:1 4.8     (i1 to i12,
        0mm, 2.6mm, 5.2mm, 7.8mm, 10.4mm)
Maughan et al. [59] Biograph mMR 8:1 N/A - x - -
(The MR-QUEST study)        
Scott and McGowan [60] Discovery 710 8:1 N/A x x - PL
Rowley et al. [58] Discovery 710 8:1 3.3 x - - PL
Seo et al. [61] SIGNA (PET/MR) 4:1 N/A x - - -
Hou et al. [62] Discovery 690 7.5:1 2.45 x x x PL
The present study Vereos DPC 9:1 2.25 - x x OSEM
        (i1, i2, i3,
        s10, s20, s30,
        0mm, 2mm, 4mm, 6mm, 8mm
        5, 10, 15 min/bed)
  1. The four last columns to the right summarise the type of evaluation done in the different studies. Contrast: Qualitative evaluation using definitions such as in the NEMA NU-2 standards for image quality. Activity: Quantitative evaluation either based on activity or RCAC estimates. Dose: Quantitative evaluation based on RCDose or DVH estimates. Optim: Studies which aimed at varying reconstruction parameters to find optimised reconstruction parameters. Only variable parameters for OSEM reconstructions with ToF are reported
  2. The QUEST phantom study including 69 PET/CT systems (GE, Siemens, Philips)
  3. The MR-QUEST phantom study including 8 PET/MR systems (Siemens)