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Table 4 Overview of the biodistribution of 223Ra after intravenous injection in patients from four clinical trials [8, 10, 11, 17] in comparison to the modelled data of the present work; data expressed as percentage of administered 223Ra; values given as range, median or mean ± SD; n = patient number

From: Radiopharmacokinetic modelling and radiation dose assessment of 223Ra used for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

Region Time post-injection Present work Nilsson et al. [17]
n = 25
Carrasquillo et al. [11]
n = 10
Chittenden et al. [10]
n = 6
Yoshida et al. [8]
n = 6
Plasma 10-15 min 55 12    9-28 (22)
  4 h 2.0   1.6-3.9 (2)   1-6 (4)
  24 h 0.5 < 1 0.37-1.0 (0.55) 0.6-5.1 (1.1)  
  3 d 0.2     0-0.9 (0.3)
Bonea 2 h 28.2     41-57 (52)
  4 h 29.8    61 ± 10  
Urine (cumulative) 4 h 0.83   5 (first void)   
  2 d 1.58    2 ± 2 2
Faeces (cumulative) 1 d 12.9   40-61 (52)   
  2 d 35.3    13 ± 12  
  3 d 47.4     29-95 (64)
  7 d 52.1    60-80  
RC/ULI* content 1 d 11.6    45 ± 16  
  7 d 0.53    0-18 (4)  
LC/LLI** content 2 d 7.4    17 ± 11  
  7 d 0.64    6 ± 4  
HATM/GI tract*** content 6 h 40.9     22-85 (64)
  1 d 39.3   50.8 ± 7.5   32-78 (52)
  2 d 22.0     4-76 (31)
  3 d 11.8     5-53 (21)
  7-8 d 1.9     0-9 (3)
  1. aTotal bone, i.e. surface, volume and bone marrow
  2. *RC/ULI, right colon/upper large intestine
  3. **LC/LLI, left colon/lower large intestine
  4. ***HATM, human alimentary tract model (HATM) [21] referring in the present model to the RC, LC and recto sigmoid; GI tract, gastrointestinal tract (ICRP 30, [26]) representing small intestine, ULI and LLI. The present work refers to RC/LC/HATM content, whereas the clinical studies refer to ULI/LLI/GI tract content