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Table 2 Estimation of the spill-in activity from the bladder to the surrounding regions. This is estimated from both filtered and unfiltered mean images with simulated bladder SUV 55.5 at 30 iterations (the filtered results are given in parentheses). \( \left(\overline{d}\right) \) is the difference between the mean values of the true simulated and reconstructed images for all voxels in the dilated region. LOA is the 95% Limit of Agreement of \( \left(\overline{d}\right) \), with ± showing the upper and lower limits

From: Validation of the physiological background correction method for the suppression of the spill-in effect near highly radioactive regions in positron emission tomography

Dilated regions (voxels)   OSEM OSEM+PSF OSEM+PSF+BC
1–2 % Difference \( \left(\overline{d}\right) \) 31.5 (41.8) 18.7 (30.8) 3.3 (1.6)
  SD1 26.4 (28.4) 25.0 (30.2) 15.4 (11.7)
LOA2 − 20.3 to + 83.3
(− 13.9 to + 97.6)
− 30.4 to + 67.8
(− 28.4 to + 89.9)
− 26.9 to + 33.5
(− 21.4 to + 24.6)
3–4 % Difference \( \left(\overline{d}\right) \) 9.3 (8.5) 2.6 (2.7) 4.7 (3.9)
SD 10.6 (9.5) 8.0 (8.9) 10.0 (8.8)
LOA − 11.4 to + 30.0
(− 10.1 to + 27.0)
− 13.1 to + 18.4
(− 14.7 to + 20.1)
− 15.0 to + 24.3
(− 13.4 to + 21.2)
5–6 % Difference \( \left(\overline{d}\right) \) 5.4 (6.4) 2.4 (3.6) 1.3 (2.5)
SD 12.9 (7.8) 8.7 (6.7) 10.9 (8.3)
LOA − 19.9 to + 30.7
(− 8.8 to + 21.6)
− 14.8 to + 19.5
(− 9.5 to + 16.7)
− 20.0 to + 22.7
(− 13.8 to + 18.8)
7–8 % Difference \( \left(\overline{d}\right) \) 4.0 (4.3) 1.6 (2.0) 1.4 (1.6)
SD 12.8 (7.9) 8.9 (7.1) 11.2 (8.3)
LOA − 21.1 to + 29.9
(− 11.2 to + 19.8)
− 16.0 to + 19.1
(− 12.0 to + 15.9)
− 20.4 to + 23.3
(− 14.6 to + 17.9)
9–10 % Difference \( \left(\overline{d}\right) \) 2.8 (3.4) 0.6 (1.5) 0.5 (1.3)
SD 11.6 (7.0) 9.1 (6.4) 10.7 (7.4)
LOA − 19.9 to + 25.5
(− 10.2 to + 17.1)
− 17.2 to + 18.4
(− 11.0 to + 14.1)
− 20.4 to + 21. 3
(− 13.1 to + 15.8)
  1. 1\( SD=\sqrt{\frac{1}{n-1}\sum \limits_{k=1}^n{\left({d}_k-\overline{d}\right)}^2} \), k represents each voxel in the dilated region
  2. 2 \( LOA=\overline{d}\pm 1.96 SD \)