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Table 2 Overview of qualitative image analysis and inter-observer agreement

From: Metal artifact reduction in patients with dental implants using multispectral three-dimensional data acquisition for hybrid PET/MRI

  Reader 1 Reader 2 Kappa ( κ ) Agreement
LAVA-Flex     
 Distinction of anatomy 3.8 ± 0.7 3.6 ± 0.8 0.75 Good
 Blurring 4.0 ± 0.7 4.0 ± 0.7 0.93 Excellent
 Noise 3.8 ± 0.5 3.7 ± 0.6 0.54 Moderate
T1-FSE     
 Distinction of anatomy 1.8 ± 0.8 2.1 ± 0.8 0.58 Moderate
 Blurring 2.6 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 0.8 0.69 Good
 Noise 1.6 ± 0.8 1.5 ± 0.8 0.63 Good
MAVRIC     
 Distinction of anatomy 1.9 ± 0.6 1.8 ± 0.6 0.85 Excellent
 Blurring 1.4 ± 0.6 1.4 ± 0.6 0.83 Excellent
 Noise 2.1 ± 0.5 2.0 ± 0.4 0.89 Excellent
MAVRIC-fast     
 Distinction of anatomy 1.8 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.5 0.72 Good
 Blurring 1.4 ± 0.6 1.4 ± 0.6 0.91 Excellent
 Noise 2.2 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 0.6 0.76 Good
  1. Qualitative image assessment was done by two readers using a five-point scale from 1 (good depiction/no artifacts) to 5 (not assessable/non-diagnostic). Data are mean ± standard deviation. Agreement rating: κ = 0 no agreement; 0.01 to 0.2 slight agreement; 0.21 to 0.40 fair agreement; 0.41 to 0.60 moderate agreement; 0.61 to 0.80 good agreement; and 0.81 to 1 excellent agreement.